Utility-Scale Solar PV Plants

ground mounted solar power plants in africa in south sudan and zimbabwe

Photo by Shutterstock

Utility-Scale Solar PV Plants
SectorMost major industry classification systems use sources of revenue as their basis for classifying companies into specific sectors, subsectors and industries. In order to group like companies based on their sustainability-related risks and opportunities, SASB created the Sustainable Industry Classification System® (SICS®) and the classification of sectors, subsectors and industries in the SDG Investor Platform is based on SICS.
Renewable Resources and Alternative Energy
Alternative Energy
Business Model Description

Set up utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants as an independent power producer to generate electricity for sale to the Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC)’s transmission system under a power purchasing agreement (PPA).

Expected Impact

Lower dependency on energy imports, reduce carbon emissions and support economic productivity.

Indicative ReturnDescribes the rate of growth an investment is expected to generate within the IOA. The indicative return is identified for the IOA by establishing its Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Return of Investment (ROI) or Gross Profit Margin (GPM).
15% - 20% (in IRR)
Investment TimeframeDescribes the time period in which the IOA will pay-back the invested resources. The estimate is based on asset expected lifetime as the IOA will start generating accumulated positive cash-flows.
Long Term (10+ years)
Market SizeDescribes the value of potential addressable market of the IOA. The market size is identified for the IOA by establishing the value in USD, identifying the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) or providing a numeric unit critical to the IOA.
< USD 50 million
Average Ticket Size (USD)Describes the USD amount for a typical investment required in the IOA.
> USD 10 million
Direct ImpactDescribes the primary SDG(s) the IOA addresses.
Affordable and Clean Energy (SDG 7) Climate Action (SDG 13)
Indirect ImpactDescribes the secondary SDG(s) the IOA addresses.
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (SDG 9) Reduced Inequalities (SDG 10) Life on Land (SDG 15)
Sector Sources
  • 1) Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. 2018. Kingdom Of Eswatini Energy Masterplan 2034. http://www.gov.sz/images/Media/WEB_KINGDOM_OF_ESWATINI_ENERGY_MASTERPLAN_2034-1.pdf 2) Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. 2019. National Development Plan (NDP) 2019/20-2021/22. http://www.gov.sz/images/CabinetMinisters/NDP-2019-20-to-2021-22-final.pdf 3) FinMark Trust. 2020. Financial Inclusion Refresh. https://finmark.org.za/system/documents/files/000/000/391/original/Eswatini_Financial_Inclusion_Refresh.pdf?1614849476 4) USAID. 2021. Eswatini Power Africa Sheet. https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/eswatini 5) Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. 2018. National Energy Policy. https://www.gov.sz/images/natural-resources/energy/NATIONAL_ENERGY_POLICY_PRINT.pdf 6) Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. 2017. Strategy for Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth (SSDIG) (Offline) 7) African Development Bank & Green Climate Fund. 2018. Eswatini Energy Programme. https://www.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/document/21210-eswatini-energy-programme.pdf 8) African Development Bank. 2020. Country Strategy Paper 2020-2024. https://www.afdb.org/en/documents/eswatini-country-strategy-paper-2020-2024 9) Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs & Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. 2021. Kingdom of Eswatini’s Revised Nationally Determined Contributions (Draft) (Offline) 10) Renewables Now. 2021. Eswatini pursues more renewables to reduce power imports. https://renewablesnow.com/news/eswatini-pursues-more-renewables-to-reduce-power-imports-742297/
IOA Sources
  • 11) REGLOBAL. 2021. Frazier Energy to build a €100 million solar project in Eswatini. https://reglobal.co/frazium-energy-to-build-a-e100-million-solar-project-in-eswatini/ 12) Engineering news. 2021. Eswatini highlights considerable strides in renewable energy development. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/eswatini-highlights-considerable-strides-in-renewable-energy-development-2021-06-04/rep_id:4136 13) Hagan & Ndhlukula. 2016. Kingdom of Swaziland Sustainable Energy for All Investment. Prospectus. https://www.se4all-africa.org/fileadmin/uploads/se4all/Documents/Country_IPs/Swaziland_Investment_Prospectus.pdf 14) Natasha Weiss. November 2021. Solar Farm Return on Investment: How Much Can You Make? https://leverage.com/financing/solar-farm-return-on-investment/ 15) African Development Bank. 2018. Eswatini Energy Programme. https://www.greenclimate.fund/sites/default/files/document/21210-eswatini-energy-programme.pdf 16) Swiss Re. Profiling the Risk of Solar and Wind. https://www.swissre.com/dam/jcr:3260a7b2-960d-48c4-9e4c-3ada7922aec0/Profiling-the-risks-in-solar-and-wind.pdf 17) PressReader. October 2021. Lavumisa Solar Power Plant Now Operational. https://www.pressreader.com/eswatini/times-of-eswatini/20211001/281844351794680 18) Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini. 2015. Independent Power Producers (IPP) Policy. https://www.esera.org.sz/legislation/docs/1578991946.pdf 19) GET Invest. 2021. Eswatini. https://www.get-invest.eu/market-information/eswatini/market-segments/ 20) Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. 2007. THE SWAZILAND ELECTRICITY COMPANY ACT. http://www.eec.co.sz/aboutus/legislation/docs/Swaziland%20Electricity%20Company%20Act%202007.pdf 21) Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC). 2021. Public Notice: Introduction of S 10 Lifeline Tariff and Application Process. http://www.eec.co.sz/documents/notices/eecsubsidy.jpeg 22) US Department of State. 2021 Investment Climate Statements: Eswatini. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-investment-climate-statements/eswatini/ 23) International Renewable Energy Agency. 2014. Swaziland Renewables Readiness Assessment. https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2014/IRENA_RRA_Swaziland_2014.pdf 24) Taiyoung News. 2021. Globeleq & Sturdee Energy Southern Africa Get Preferred Bidder Status For 2×15 MW AC Solar Power Projects By ESERA In Africa’s Eswatini. https://taiyangnews.info/markets/eswatini-selects-bidders-for-45-mw-solar-capacity/ 25) International Renewable Energy Agency. 2018. Eswatini Energy Profile. https://www.irena.org/IRENADocuments/Statistical_Profiles/Africa/Eswatini_Africa_RE_SP.pdf 26) Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. 2019. Energy efficiency and Conservation Policy. https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/Other_Publications/EE-Eswatini2019.pdf 27) Eswatini Climate Coalition. November, 2021. Unlocking Renewable Energy Potential in Eswatini. https://eswatiniclimate.org/2021/11/09/unlocking-renewable-energy-potential-in-eswatini/ 28) Eswatini Electricity Company. 2021. Introduction of S10 Lifeline Tariff and Application Process. http://www.eec.co.sz/documents/notices/eecsubsidy.jpeg 29) UNDP stakeholder consultation with solar energy company in Eswatini. January, 2022 30) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2022. Statistics, SDG Indicators Database. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/UNSDG/IndDatabasePage 31) UNDP stakeholder consultation with Eswatini Electricity Company. February, 2022 32) UNCDF & UNDP. 2020. Eswatini Energy and the Poor Unpacking the Investment Case for Clean Energy. https://www.undp.org/sites/g/files/zskgke326/files/publications/UNDP-UNCDF-eSwatini-Energy-and-the-Poor.pdf 33) Government of Eswatini. 2020. Post COVID-19 Kingdom of Eswatini Economic Recovery Plan. http://www.gov.sz/images/CORONA/FINAL-POST-COVID-19-ECONOMIC-RECOVERY-PLAN-ESWATINI-14082020_compressed.pdf 34) Eswatini Public Procurement Regulatory Agency. Public Procurement Regulations 2020. https://sppra.co.sz/sppra/documents/regulations/Pages%20from%20Eswatini%20Government%20Gazette%20-%2018th%20Dec%202020.pdf 35) Union of Concerned Scientists. 2013. Environmental Impacts of Solar Power. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-solar-power#:~:text=The%20potential%20environmental%20impacts%20associated,solar%20thermal%20plants%20(CSP) 36) Sampath Kumar Venkatacharya, Ravi Samikannu et al. 2020. Economics and impact of recycling solar waste materials on the environment and health care. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352186420314309